What is a fair way to distribute income? Is equal "fair"? In the Theory of Justice, Havard philosopher, John Rawls proposes a way to finding out how individuals view fair.
Rawls proposes that people stand behind a veil of ignorance in which they can't see what they will have. Then before the veil is drawn, have them split up the economic pie. Rawls believes people will share the pie in an equitable way.
In this thought experiment, I believe goods and services will be distributed fairly, but they won't stay equitable. After a way some will have more, some will have less, and some will have none. I can watch a game of monopoly and see this outcome. The notion that society distributes income is a misnomer. No one cuts the economic pie and distributes it like a server at a cafe. People earn their marginal product. Those who are the most productive earn the biggest share of the pie.